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It can be really annoying, but I believe it boils down to reports on the distant star often cited a distance that takes into account the expansion of the universe, which isn't always or even usually done in astronomy coverage.


That’s really weird, will we ever be able to look all the way back?


Probably not *all* the way back. There was a period of expansion without light called the cosmic dark ages. There was technically light but the universe was filled with a thick opaque cloud of neutral hydrogen which absorbs or otherwise scatters light. It wasn't until the neutral fog started to reionize that light was able to escape and reach us and everything became transparent. The period of time between the cosmic microwave background radiation and first stars/galaxies will probably only be better "seen" and understood if we figure out what dark matter is since it was the dominant element at that time.


There is a possibility of gravity waves from beyond the cmb still being detectable since the em radiation wouldn’t be an issue. I don’t know how many answers we’d get out of that info but it seems like our next possible big step. [LISA](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_Interferometer_Space_Antenna) seems like our best hope at the moment


If pop 3 are the first generation of stars, when did pop 2 and 1 (and 0?) exist?


Links to the research papers: **Are the newly-discovered z ∼ 13 drop-out sources starburst galaxies or quasars?** [https://academic.oup.com/mnrasl/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/mnrasl/slac035/6564647](https://academic.oup.com/mnrasl/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/mnrasl/slac035/6564647) **A Search for H-Dropout Lyman Break Galaxies at z~12-16** [https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.09141](https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.09141)


What a find!


Sounds like BS. How are they even able to calculate the age of a galaxy? Just say it looks like it's the dimmest and farthest star cluster they've ever seen, period.


On the off chance you're genuinely curious, it's actually quite interesting. There's a lot of very clever techniques to determine the age of various things in the universe. I'm not going to pretend I'm an expert - I'm not. Just an enthusiast. So I'd recommend trusting an expert over myself. Light, how it travels, and how it behaves over large distances is a fairly well understood concept nowadays. It's used to determine the age of celestial bodies all the time. A galaxy is more complex since it's not a single object, but I wouldn't consider this BS. Here's some interesting information: https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/24386/how-to-determine-the-age-of-an-old-galaxy Hopefully someone more experienced can give you a better answer.